GUIDELINES FOR IJTIHAD IN RESPONDING TO THE CONTEMPORARY PROBLEMS
Terminologically, ijtihad means to give all out the efforts. This term is being used specifically on a task that needs 'energy plus'. In terms of Jurisprudence Islamic Scholars, this term means to give out the efforts in producing and resulting shariajurisprudence and law. ljtihad is never ends as being mentioned by ulemas, first, it is impossible for ijtihad ro hu stopped except with the ended of asl al-taklil (responsihility) which means the Resurrection Day. Second it is impossible for ijtihad to be ended before this world ruins. A mujtahid must be able to comprehend the Arabic language until he can understand the term extrinsically and intrinsically. He also must be able to comprehend the interpretation of al-Qur 'an especially rhat are related with jurisprudence and law (ayat al-ahkam) accompanied with his knowledge regarding khabar and the competent Companions in their field. Meanwhile in Hadith field, a mujtahid must be able to differentiate between Hadith Sahih than Hadith Dhaif, whether with knowing the narrators and their justice or scrutinize it through the book of al-sahihah, comprehend khabar, matan and sanad including with the ability to recognize the narrator, ta’dil and tajrih, the last time they narrated hadith, a specific questions that becomes the cause of Hadith being revealed, differentiate between the law whether they are compulsory, Sunnah, forbidden and permissible until they are not mixed among them. They also must be able to comprehend the argument that becomes consensus (ijma) between the scholars until not to produce other ijtihad that oppose with them. Fifth, apprehend the position of analogical (qiyas) in terms of theoretically and practically. Furthermore, there are differences between ijtihad (ijtihad ) methods during every ages which are during the revelation (sharia) phase, during the companions' ijtihad age, during the tabi 'in ijtihad age, during ijtihad sect (mazhab) age. It involves lots of new and contemporary incident that do not exist during rhe era of Prophet Muhammad pbuh. Hence, a ijtihad must be made to extract a law regarding the particular issues that are being arisen.
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